Vol. 6., No. 3, September 2018, WSB UNIVERSITY IN WROCŁAW

Editor: Radosław Kamiński, Joanna Wieprow

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Vol. 6, No. 3, 9- 31, September 2018

European Territorial Co-operation between local government authorities: current practices and future perspectives in the view of the EU institutions and bodies

WSB University in Wrocław, Poland
Dimitris-Tsatsos-Institute für Europäische Verfassungswissenschaften, FernUniversität in Hagen, Germany


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Aim:  The aim of the present contribution is to evaluate a potential added value of European Territorial Co-operation (ETC) between local government authorities on the European integration process, notably in terms of polycentric development and governance in Europe.

Design / Research methods: The authors look into ETC (both at regional and local level, commonly referred to as EU regional cooperation) from the perspective of the EU institutions and bodies. Through the prism of ETC the authors analyse the status of regional and local authorities in the EU law, in particular in terms of the legal and institutional basis for such cooperation and the involvement of the said sub-national authorities in the EU decision-making process.

Conclusions / findings: Even though regional participation in EU decision-making is by and large limited to areas which directly concern sub-national authorities, the European Commission and the European Parliament seem to have gained reasonable awareness of the indispensable role that the “third”, regional level of governance has to play in the economic and political integration process. Such a new pattern of governance in the EU, stretching not only above, but also below the level of the nation state (Jeffery 1997: 2, cf. also Finck 2017) is not only a conditio sine qua non of a truly multi-level governance, but also potentially presents a real added value in terms of overhauling opportune interests of national politics running counter the interests of local communities.

Originality / value of the article: In literature the dominant trend is to present the bi-centric relationship between the Union and its Member States. This paper attempts to shed some light on a less evident, albeit arguably growing in importance relationship between the EU and a sub-national (local government) authority. The authors point to the role of EU institutions in taking account of legitimate concerns of European regions by way of creating legal and institutional framework to, if not fully overcome, then at least mitigate the obstacles to regional interoperability.

Keywords: European Territorial Co-operation (ETC), EU regional policy, the Committee of the Regions, multi-level governance in the EU.

JEL: R5, F53, K00

DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.711

Vol. 6, No. 3, 33-49, September 2018

Financial and legal aspects of local government units’ promotion measures

Authors: Barbara PAWEŁKO-CZAJKA
WSB University of Wrocław, Poland
Jędrzej CZAJKA
University of Economics in Wrocław, Poland


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Aim: The aim of the paper is to discuss how local government units perform their direct responsibilities in light of the audit practice of Najwyższa Izba Kontroli (NIK) (Supreme Audit Office). Effective promotional measures on the part of local government units (LGUs) contribute to improved quality of services they provide, to enhancing LGUs’ positive image, to raising their attractiveness and competitiveness, to reducing unemployment as well as to strengthening local identity.

Design / Research methods: The first section of the paper is concerned with placing the LGU’s promotional measures within the framework of local marketing theory. Next, the discussion centers around the legal basis for conducting promotional activities and their place within the LGUs’ direct responsibilities, at their various levels. What deserves to be highlighted is the differentiated focus of provisions on self-governing commune, district and voivodship. The subsequent section of the paper analyses the rules on budgeting the LGU’s promotional actions. The paper ends with a discussion on audits carried out by NIK within the scope of LGUs’ promotional activities.The method employed consisted in a critical analysis of the relevant provisions of law, academic literature and information on NIK’s audit findings.

Conclusions / findings: The provisions applying to tasks pertaining to promotion have been formulated in a very general way, and so the authors decided to compare them with the interpretation of an audit body, such as NIK. A particular emphasis was placed on financial aspects of promotion by local governments, as they are the focus of NIK’s interests, with the Office conducting audits based on the criteria of legality and cost-effectiveness.

Originality / value of the paper: Through its discussion of audit findings referring to LGUs’ promotional actions, the paper sheds new light on the very general provisions constituting their legal basis.

Implications of the research: This paper may be of practical assistance to LGUs’ employees responsible for promotion in terms of good and bad practices – from the view of audit authorities.

Limitations of the research (if applicable): Not applicable.

Keywords: Local government, promotion, finance, NIK (Supreme Audit Office) administration, local marketing.

JEL: M31, M38, H72, H76

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.739

Vol. 6, No. 3, 51-66, September 2018

Achievement goals, satisfaction and loyalty within different generations – real differences or stereotypes

Author: Radosław KAMIŃSKI
WSB University in Wrocław, Poland

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Aim: Today the local self-government is an element of public administration while the scope of its autonomy is one of the determinants of a democratic state based on the rule of law. The aim of the paper is an analysis concerned with the broadly defined autonomy of local self-government, particularly considering the legal and financial aspect. The author seeks to demonstrate that an absolute sovereignty of local government is not possible, with the state, and more specifically the legislator, being still its primary regulator.

Design / Research methods: In conducting the analysis of the extent and rules governing the autonomy of local self-government units, the author drew on a variety of studies illustrating not infrequently extremely different views on the institution of self-government and the functioning of the units themselves. The research process was based on an analysis of the content of materials constituting the topic scrutinized here.

Conclusions / findings: The analysis suggests that the autonomy of local self-government units is a vital and necessary element of the entire administration system of the state. However, in the light of the fact that local self-government – which functions based on the principle of public authority devolution – is shaped by the legislator, and that it performs a portion of public responsibilities, the state may – in accordance with provisions laid down by law – shape its character.

Originality / value of the article: The principle of autonomy of local self-government units is entirely in line with the provisions of the European Charter of Local-Self Government and the doctrine of the rule of law. However, the fact should be emphasized that the legislator should carry out a careful analysis of the solutions adopted and – seeing them from the perspective of nearly 30 years since local self-government was reestablished in Poland – implement changes within the broadly defined area of finances.

Implications of the research (if applicable): The legislator ought to conduct an in-depth analysis of the functioning of the public administration system in Poland. The issue concerned with the autonomy of individual units of local self-government requires that a parliamentary debate and beyond be conducted. This pertains to the very subject, as well as the functional determinants (the number of units, their competences, vertical relationship).

Limitations of the research (if applicable): Not applicable.

Keywords: administrative reform, decentralization, local self-government, public administration.

JEL: K25; H76

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.737

Vol. 6, No. 3, 67-83, September 2018

The study of conditions and directions of spatial development as an instrument for commune spatial security management

Author: Joanna FILABER
WSB University in Wrocław, Poland

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Aim: The paper has two main aims. The first one is to outline the current legal framework regulating the study of conditions and directions of spatial development – especially in terms of its content and adoption procedure. The other aim is the author’s attempt at answering the question what are the legal consequences of adopting the study in the context of s statutory duty to ensure public security as communes’ direct responsibility, i.e. – in relation to every citizen of the Republic of Poland as regards spatial security across commune.

Design /research methods: In order to attain these aims, the author employed a descriptive method to show the procedure involved in drawing up planning acts together with a key role of public administration bodies and a consulting role played by the community and the importance of its participation in the planning process. However, the author confined herself only to the study of conditions and directions of spatial development because of the editing requirements for scientific papers in terms of the volume of discussion (what was omitted was the discussion concerned with commune decisions on localization and local spatial development plans).

Conclusions / findings: Presenting legal consequences stemming from adopting planning acts and making planning decisions, and the administrative measures corresponding to their characteristics was necessary for comprehending the threats arising from irrational actions taken by commune authorities – understood as failing to include information within the scope of flood risk management in the process of spatial planning and development, as part of decision-making freedom afforded to communes.

Originality / value of the paper: The analysis of legal regulations has been complemented by practical knowledge. The content of the paper will, therefore, provide information on the legal nature of the study of conditions and directions of spatial development for residents of every commune and for investors, who having an opportunity to familiarize themselves with the arrangements of the study, can make further decisions, which has a direct impact on the level of Poland’s spatial security.

Keywords: spatial development, the study of conditions and directions of spatial development, spatial security.

JEL: K25; H76

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.734

Vol. 6, No. 3, 85-96, September 2018

Integrated Territorial Investments as a new form of management and implementation of EU funds in Poland

Author: Marta WYSOGLĄD
Foundation Institute for Social Innovation and Development ANIMAR, Wrocław, Poland


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Aim: One of the key instruments related to the development policy of functional areas are Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI). The concept of ITI is a complete novelty of the cohesion policy implemented in Poland. The article presents the mechanism of ITI operation and differences between individual voivodships.

Design / Research methods: The work was based on the analysis and synthesis of the EU and Polish regulatory provisions on cohesion policy 2014-2020, data on the financial allocation for ITI implementation and literature on the subject of the EU regional policy.

Conclusions / findings: The findings show that the funds allocated contribute to the implementation of complementary and better tailored to local communities projects. Identifying the ITI areas depends on many factors and on the socio-economic potential of a given territory and as a consequence, on the use of the Union funds.

Originality / value of the article: The very concept of ITI is interesting because it contributes to the development of functional areas and leads to cooperation between, first and foremost, territorial self-government units at various levels.

Implications of the research (if applicable): The axiological and practical issues of the paper form a specific core constituting the basis for development impacts at local government level. The analysis of existing data and legal acts will allow its premises to be used in research as well as in practice.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Public Policy, Regional Development Planning and Policy.

JEL: R58, O19

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.736

Vol. 6, No. 3, 97-111, September 2018


Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland


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Aim: The paper presents the main definitions and legal and economic aspects of cross-border cooperation in Polish border areas. In particular, the paper shows the development of Euroregional cooperation, town-twinning and cross-border clusters. Furthermore, the paper describes primary goals as well as achievements and barriers to Eroregional cooperation, as well as determinantsand legal basis for cross-border activities.

Design /research methods: The study was based on an analysis of legal acts regarding the functioning of local government units, which was complemented by the findings stemming from the literature on the subject and the author’s own research on cross-border cooperation between local communities and local government units operating under the Polish-Czech-Slovak Euroregion.

Conclusions/ findings: For local self-governments located very near the national border, a cross-border cooperation is an opportunity to implement a number of tasks delegated under the acts on local self- governments, thus making a higher quality of life of border communities a reality. The practice to date, however, shows that many barriers exist, mainly of legal and institutional nature, to successful implementation of cross-border initiatives.

Limitations of the research: Poland’s southern border area.

Keywords: local self-government, Euroregion, cross-border cluster, twin towns, cross-border cooperation.

JEL: K25; H76

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.740

Vol. 6, No. 3, 113-131, September 2018

Evolution of local government in modern Greece (1828-2017)

Author: Kamil STOLAREK
Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland


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Aim: In the paper, the author aims at addressing the issues centered around Greek public administration, the way in which it is organized and how it functions. The Greek model of administration will be outlined, taking into account the division into government and local administration. Another important aspect is to show the evolution of the local government and the implications of this process for the functioning of the Greek state. Further on, the author will show the correlation between the ill-structured (also ill-functioning) Greek model of public administration and the country’s economic problems.

Design /Research methods: This study is predominantly based on the analysis of existing data using such research techniques as, for instance, desk research, content analysis, archive documents. The author also draws on the qualitative research which he conducted, i.e. in-depth interviews.

Conclusions/ Findings: Based on the empirical research, conclusions will be formulated on the subject of Greek administration referring to the considerable inefficiency of its functioning. Moreover, diverse pathological phenomena will be identified which occurred, or are still occurring, in the Greek administration such as, among other things, overstaffed public sector, excessive bureaucracy or corruption. In the final section of the paper, the author will address the issue of the challenges faced by the Greek model of public administration from the point of view of the organization and governance of this administration. Further to that, the author will highlight the indispensability of these challenges in the light of a more efficient functioning of this administration in the long term.

Originality / value of the article: The topic itself of the paper pertains to modern Greece, i.e. a research area whose scholarly literature is today in deficit, in particular in terms of the Polish language publications. The author not only conducted in-depth query of Polish or English sources, but he also drew on the Greek content of normative acts, which further underlines the originality of the paper.

Keywords: administration, French model, Kallikratis program, Kapodistrias program, local level, reforms, local self-government.

JEL: E00, F02, P1, H7

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.741

Vol. 6, No. 3, 133-144, September 2018

Local self-government. Problems and challenges in the light of new regional development instruments. An outline of issues

Author: Monika KOWALCZYK
WSB University in Wrocław, Poland

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Aim: The aim of the work is to identify the problems and challenges of local self-government in the application of new instruments of regional development.

Design / Research methods: In conducting the analysis of the extent and rules governing the autonomy of local self-government units, the author drew on a variety of studies illustrating not infrequently extremely different views on the institution of self-government and the functioning of the units themselves. The research process was based on an analysis of the content of materials constituting the topic scrutinized here.

Conclusions / findings: The challenges which Polish local self-government is facing have been the subject of numerous reports, analyses and political and academic debates. The discussion on cohesion policy is becoming increasingly heated mainly on account of the concerns about the two-speed Europe and radically different views on the forms of aid for local governments. The paper presents current problems and dysfunctions of the local government in Poland and the main challenges and opportunities faced by local governments when implementing new instruments designed to support regional development such as smart specialization, community-led development and integrated territorial investments.

Implications of the research (if applicable): These solutions require that the previous practice of using financial support be changed and adapted to the conditions with a view to improve the integrated management of development.

Keywords: local self-government, region, investments, union funds, integrated management.

JEL: H70, O1

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29015/ceejme.735